Sunday, December 31, 2006

I love the input to this next question. Thanks for taking the time to respond!

What detractors do you see for little girls and their continued interest in aviation? What do you see as solutions? In what way could you see Girls With Wings assisting in contributing to a solution?

1. Still a male dominated vocation and continued education and encouragement required to keep girls/women interested

2. funding and time

3. Still a "good old boy" mentality at most aviation-related industries

4. Fying cost's money. There's little advice for teens on how to get the money to take flying lessons.

5. The focus on aviation being for men. Some girls don't think they have a chance. They need to be encouraged to follow their dreams. I have a 4 yr old that wants to fly helicopters, even though her dad is a fighter pilot, and as long as he says that is what she wants I'm all for it!

6. Girls need something to actively participate in like a club for girls who want to fly and meet at least once a week. The club would have to be mostly girls otherwise the girl who gets stuck with a bunch of girls she dosen't know may feel uncomfortable.

7. ideas given to children assist them in making choices

8. Not enough information out there about women in aviation. When I went to college, it was more tailored to men, and even in high school, it's defined as a male dominated field.

9. Detractors: Just the fact that aviation is such a small percentage of the population and is not really understood by the general public. Solution: Exposure, exposure, exposure, and positive programs such as the one you are promoting.

10. Girls are not really encouraged to pursue careers in aviation or aerospace. There is an imagine in society that careers in engineering or science would typically be for men - and that is an image that needs to be changed. More seminars and conferences need to be provided for girls who have the interest or who don't even have the interest to expose them to what is out there in aviation and aerospace. There is a wealth of knowledge that can be tapped into in the aviation industry - we need to all get together and encourage the future of aviation today in order for success tomorrow and beyond.

11. Not many have the interest that guys do, people don't expect girls to so girls end up paying for everything themselves and it gets costly and then girls just forget there dreams

12. I believe that, at the root of it, young girls simply do not receive enough exposure to aviation. I was lucky to have a father that was an 'aviation-buff' and was my exposure avenue. I was also taught that I 'can do whatever I want to do in life' despite standard convention. I think your website/organization is a great step towards a solution. I realize that it must be a huge financial burden, but maybe advertising the organization through non-aviation related avenues (where the focus/target group is young girls) might create more exposure. For example, how about getting a blurb/link on a Nikelodeon website - one that comes to mide is "Dora the Explorer"? That show's target group is children of pre-schooler age (which I can imagine a majority are girls). However, I am not in any way familiar with the legal/ethical implications of associating a non-profit group with one that that is profit-based.

13. other life goal, just everyday life stress with school growing up. to fix it have an easy way of learning everything there is to know about getting an airplane in the air.

14. to keep girls in their idea of flight

15. Young girls need to be exposed to aviation.. and after they show a interest it needs to be incouraged... still a good ole boys network at most airports.

16. significant cost of training

17. Elementary schools study transportation and female pilots are not well represented in books. I think if more girls knew they COULD be pilots, they would want to pursue it.

18. You know my opinion already . ..

19. Perception that girls shouldn't fly cuz it is for boys only- solution is education. You are on the right track having female mentors and video clips available for the girls. Girls have to see girls doing it and succeding at any aspect of aviation.

20. Things available in the "mainstream" (non-aviation-related) stores are geared towards males. Let's try to encourage more women to write books geared to girls who are interested in aviation, manufacturers to make clothing with airplanes in "girl clothes", etc.

21. I speak with middle school girls regularly promoting aviation, and very few have ever considered a career in aviation, they seem to lean towards nursing and teaching. I believe this is a result of a number of issues the biggest being lack of exposure to other aviation oriented females.

22. I think that the only way to directly show girls the possibilities is to present programs in schools or to girls groups like the Brownies or the Campfire Girls. Or to the YWCA? There must be many more girls' groups that I don't know about.

23. I think little girls don't realize or consider that they could be a pilot. It never occurred to me! More education would help this I think.

24. As a hispanic girl growning up, my families priorities were that i get a good education. Something safe, close to home, and financially stable. Then they wanted me to start a family. I never had goals past that. I didn't know what was out there for me, when i left home and joined the Corps it was a last resort. I think if we continue to set examples for young women to aspire to other than the convientional, like you have on this site, then we will see more woman thinking outside of the box. We need to continue to get news out about other carrer fields. Your doing a great job, but we have to really get out there.

25. too much media emphasis on shallow things, like looks we need to inspire young women and make it seem commonplace that women work in aviation fields

26. crusty old men in FBOs scare them away...unless girls (of any age) are deeply commited to learning or closely associated with a CFI, they will be scared away. I've seen it mulitple times. (Fortunately I'm jsut stubborn enough to stick it out.) Flyers members could print and pin up at FBOs may give some of them encouragement.

27. There are no real role models for them, no the heros we have are not in the childs world unless one of us brings it to her.

28. People in general don't realize that aviation is open to all. More females with wings in the higher ranks of gov. & civ. world.

29. Lack of Mentors, Lack of exposure

30. Girls have generally been discouraged from flying and flying careers. We attend numerous "fly-ins" and have never seen a workshop or information for young girls. There are always fathers & sons & grandsons but rarely any girls at these events. Information is a very important part of "Girls With Wings" and expos at the major flight events around the nation.

31. Detractors would be a lack of emphasis on "physical conditioning" for girls such as in sports, running, it is with youg boys. By the time they are old enough to enter into a program leading to aviation qualification, it is harder to keep up with the physical requirements ( in the military) than with boys who are encouraged to be "physical" or athletic all throughout childhood. A solution would be an emphasis on Physical Activities in school for young girls, not just a Loitering type of "recess" at lunch. Girls with Wings might help alleviate this by sponsoring a "field day" or an "aviation olympics" for the satellite clubs or groups once or twice a year at a regional location to encourage competition and rigorous physical training among the young girls.

32. In the articles that I have read, it seems that minorities succeed a lot more when they have a one on one mentor. An adult that has climbed the ladder and can help lead the way for the next generation. I think that I know at least a half a dozen women pilots that would help in this project!

33. The old stigma of girls aren't pilots seems to be going away. Keep getting the word out, and doing what you're doing! I want my little girl to be a pilot!

34. Counselors that still think of flying as a "man's job." Counselors that do not know how to tell students HOW to become a pilot. Lack of female role models.

35. well maybe you girls/guys can visit different schools and stuuf

36. I don't think that little girls get exposed to women pilots very often. I always see shy stares and even avoidance of eye contact as I walk through airports in my pilot's uniform. If only I could hand out flyers or something to help them understand that the sky isn't even the limit....

37. Awareness of women pilots is important and GWW is assisting in that goal.

38. Just getting the girls to learn about flying. I gave a ride (Eagle Flight) to a 7 year old girl. When it was over, she wanted to be a pilot. Didn't realize that women could fly!

39. First, girls are not told that aviation is a possibility. Parents need to be made more aware of the possibilities. Second, we need to get into the schools in the early grades through middle school and make as many young girls as possible know about the joys of flying.

40. Detractors- cost of aviation. Possible scholarship opportunity?

41. Bias in the educational systems is still a significant factor.

42. Lack of access to planes/finances. In short, the same problem that most of us face. I didn't get my license until I was 36. I didn't realize until I was 32 or 33 that General Aviation even existed. I figured that either you flew for the military or the military then the airlines and that was it. I never looked into it further because I've always hated math (despite being in advanced math classes) and have lousy eyes and I figured both of those would exclude me from the military. Girls with Wings might be able to help by recruiting women who own their own planes to go into local schools and maybe offer short rides to little girls. Just an idea. I realize the liability implications are large.

43. problem is continued attitude that women don't belong in these careers -- even comments such as "i didn't know a woman could be a pilot". team up with other technical organizations that are women and girl oriented, such as society of women engineers...

44. "Normalization" of women piloting gets better every year. Ways that Girls with Wing can help are by 1)providing a network for young girls with aviation aspirations to connect through, 2)providing connections with mentors 3)listing of educational and scholarship opportunities 4)making aviation fun.

Saturday, December 30, 2006

I've spent the last three nights sitting standby in Las Vegas! I'm definitely glad to be getting out of here before the New Years Eve revelers arrive...

Next question:
If this company developed a non-profit division in order to exclusively promote STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) education, would you commit to a tax deductible contribution? (This is the Generate LIFT division of Very Important Pilots, LLC.)

Response Percent Response Total
Yes. 34.5% 20
No. 29.3% 17
Possibly (please clarify). 36.2% 21
1. Depends on USA taxation laws regarding foreign contributions eg: Canada
2. How much and how often?
3. Would want to know more first
4. I would be interested in seeing scholarships available.
5. Depends on the funds I would have
6. i don't know
7. If finances allow ( we are one income military family)
8. Don't spread yourself too thin, though
9. if presentations were done at schools or aviation conferences
10. Depends on family commitments, and my previous financial commitment to other institutions.
11. really don't know if I would or not.
12. Tax deductible is important!
13. I would need to know more information first.
14. i dont know what that is or what it means srry
15. my salary is really bad this year, but I'd probably send a few bucks to help out.
16. Can only provide small personal donation, not corporate.
17. YES! When I have a stellar job when I get out of the Peace Corps!
18. I would want to see what is planned for the target population.
19. I'm a flight instructor...I would love to donate, but honestly it depends on the weather!
20. Depends on what is presented. High quality information would result in a contribution.
21. It would depend on my finances at the time and how frustrated I was at the lack of humanities and arts in the local schools at the time.

Total Respondents 58
(skipped this question) 59

Friday, December 29, 2006

What merchandise would you like to see Girls With Wings produce?

Response in Percent followed by Response Total
Dolls with accessories. 39.7% 25
Calendars, note cards, stickers, other printed materials. 65.1% 41
Books/Videos/Software, etc. 57.1% 36
More apparel for children. 60.3% 38
More apparel for adults. 47.6% 30
More layette items to give as gifts. 25.4% 16
Jewelry. 42.9% 27
Hats, bags, other accessories. 46% 29
Other (please specify). 17.5% 11

1. games for free
2. ...deleted, inappropriate...
3. Logo golf balls. A lot of women play golf.
4. school supplies, folders, notebooks, pencils etc. my child would definately stock up!
5. Airplane toys, airport toys and set ups
6. Clothing is great, just try to remember there are some pilots who are not a size 8.
7. Perhaps medium sized posters for kids' rooms.
8. Decorative nursery items with feminine aviation themes and colors. My daughter and son-in-law are decorating their baby-to-be's nursery in an airplane theme. I thought they were crazy! My son in law has a private pilot's license in Alaska. I was on e-bay looking for airplane items that might work for a baby's room. Impressed by your website, "Girls with wings".
9. Books written specifically with GWW motives in mind, not just run-of-the-mill publications.
10. Anything that would get young women into aviation.
11. "girlified" toy air craft toys.....toy remote control planes and helicopters....maybe in "pink".

Total Respondents 63
(skipped this question) 55

Thursday, December 28, 2006

During this tour we spent a lot of time taking people to and from Florida from the New York and New Jersey area. After a little while flying up at altitude, our window starts to show frost and ice!

Why is that? You would think, wouldn't you, that the higher you get in the sky, the closer you are to the sun... so warmer, right? Actually the reverse is true, and it's called the environmental lapse rate. The environmental lapse rate (ELR), is the actual change of temperature with altitude of the stationary atmosphere at a specific time and specific location. The ELR at a given place varies from day to day and even during each day. As an average the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) defines an international standard atmosphere with a temperature lapse rate of 6.5 °C per km (3.57 °F/1000 ft or 1.99°C/1000 ft) from sea level to 11 km. See Wikipedia for more information.

They are talking about the first level of the atmosphere, the troposhere. The envelope of gas surrounding the Earth changes from the ground up. Five distinct layers have been identified using thermal characteristics (temperature changes), chemical composition, movement, and density. Can you name them?

The troposphere begins at the Earth's surface and extends up to 4-12 miles (6-20 km) high. This is where we live. As the gases in this layer decrease with height, the air become thinner. Therefore, the temperature in the troposphere also decreases with height. As you climb higher, the temperature drops from about 62°F (17°C) to -60°F (-51°C). Almost all weather occurs in this region. The height of the troposphere varies from the equator to the poles. At the equator it is around 11-12 miles (18-20 km) high, at 50°N and 50°S, 5½ miles and at the poles just under four miles high. For more information, click here.

Monday, December 25, 2006


Yea! Finally back on the road flying, unfortunately a lot of early mornings and long days.

Next survey question:

Based on your background and experience, where would you like to see MORE of a Girls With Wings presence?

Response in Percent, followed by Response Total

Aviation Conventions and Expos. 60% 39
Schools and Educational Forums. 86.2% 56
Online, in website development. 52.3% 34
Airport Giftshops and other stores. 73.8% 48
Other (please specify). 15.4% 10

1. Dovetail programs into Women In Aviation and 99's to show a link to future adult female info and links.
2. games games games
3. i want to join airforce as gd pilot i have lost my chance but still i mcrazy about airforce and aircraft
4. ACTUALLY FLYING!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
5. Any where to get exposure. How about a display in airport restaurants?
6. Aviation Museums
7. Magazines, like Flight Training, AOPA Pilot, as well as more "mainstream" like magazines oriented to teens. Also, working with something like the American Girl dolls.
8. Aviation Museums! There are many around the country, and they almost always have gift shops. I know one in Owls Head, Maine, that's a Transportation Museum and well-visited. It has lots of old planes, and a great gift shop with aviation stuff for boys and hardly anything for girls. I'd like to see your stuff there. Could you get your stuff into the Air Force Academy gift shop in Colo. Springs, CO.? Of course, Denver International Airport (DIA) is a must.
9. Schools (Magnet possibly) where there is an afterschool program, perhaps, such as the Spanish Club or Key Club, there can be a future pilots club which provides field trips to aviation museums, guest speakers and tours of military airfields where the girls can climb all over different kinds of aircraft and get the "feel" of what it would be like to work around them. Also, planned trips to airshows!
10. Visual media

Total Respondents 65

Next post, I'll talk about how cold it is up at altitude!

Thursday, December 21, 2006

Pinning on my wings.

Next Question: Based on your background and experience, where would you like to see MORE of a Girls With Wings presence?

Response Aviation Conventions and Expos. Percent Response 60% Total 39
Schools and Educational Forums. 86.2% 56
Online, in website development. 52.3% 34
Airport Giftshops and other stores. 73.8% 48
Other (please specify). 15.4% 10

Based on your background and experience, where would you like to see MORE of a Girls With Wings presence?

1. Dovetail programs into Women In Aviation and 99's to show a link to future adult female info and links.
2. games games games
3. i want to join airforce as gd pilot i have lost my chance but still i mcrazy about airforce and aircraft
4. ACTUALLY FLYING!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
5. Any where to get exposure. How about a display in airport restaurants?
6. Aviation Museums
7. Magazines, like Flight Training, AOPA Pilot, as well as more "mainstream" like magazines oriented to teens. Also, working with something like the American Girl dolls.
8. Aviation Museums! There are many around the country, and they almost always have gift shops. I know one in Owls Head, Maine, that's a Transportation Museum and well-visited. It has lots of old planes, and a great gift shop with aviation stuff for boys and hardly anything for girls. I'd like to see your stuff there. Could you get your stuff into the Air Force Academy gift shop in Colo. Springs, CO.? Of course, Denver International Airport (DIA) is a must.
9. Schools (Magnet possibly) where there is an afterschool program, perhaps, such as the Spanish Club or Key Club, there can be a future pilots club which provides field trips to aviation museums, guest speakers and tours of military airfields where the girls can climb all over different kinds of aircraft and get the "feel" of what it would be like to work around them. Also, planned trips to airshows!
10. Visual media

Total Respondents 65 (skipped this question) 53

Tuesday, December 19, 2006

Next survey question: Demographic Information

Please tell us a few things about yourself (the person who most often visits the GWW website). Category is followed by percent who answered the question, followed by number of responses total, followed by specific answers given (and my comments in italics if applicable).

Age. 97% 64 Average is 34 years old
(a little older than my target audience... ;o) )

Occupation. 92.4% 61
1. Fire Suppression Flight Team
2. Attorney
3. Naval Flight Officer
4. grandma of future girl w/wings
5. 3-4
6. student
7. RN
8. student & wife of fighter pilot
9. Chief Flight Instructor
10. kindergarten
11. Director of Operations for a small hub airport
12. Master CFI
13. Education Outreach Coordinator
14. Horse Handler
15. Student
16. WSO(Weapon Systems Operator) in F/A-18F
17. student
18. non
19. school
20. student
21. Air Traffic Controller
22. home maker
23. homemaker
24. Student
25. student
26. recruiter
27. pilot
28. pilot- international cargo 747
29. Caseworker
30. Aviation Careers Presenter/Pilot
31. educator
32. self-employed
33. Corporate Pilot
34. pilot
35. hair stylist
36. United States Marine Corps
37. Airline Pilot
38. US Air Force
39. pilot
40. Apache/Longbow Attack Pilot
41. writer
42. former naval aviator, mom of 4
43. Law
44. Ah64-D Longbow Attack Helicopter Pilot
45. student
46. Pilot
47. military instructor pilot
48. Airline Pilot/Writer
49. student
50. regional airline pilot
51. retired
52. Admin. Officer, Aeronautics Div
53. Server/Bartender
54. HS math teacher
55. pilot
56. Flight Instructor/FBO Manager
57. Blackhawk Test Pilot
58. Retired (health care professional)
59. Graphic Designer
60. engineer
61. airline pilot

Gender. 95.5% 63 7 of 63 respondents were men.

Geographical Location. 97% 64

1. Sask. & Ont. CANADA
2. Georgia
3. NAS Pax River
4. Wisconsin
5. fort bragg
6. asia
7. Southern California
8. United Kingdom
9. BC, Canada
10. Idaho, United States
11. California
12. Midwest
13. Gillespie Field, El Cajon, Ca.
14. Phoenix, AZ
15. IL
16. Minnesota, USA
17. Southern California
18. maryland
19. husdon Mi
20. orlando florida
21. United States
22. Iowa
23. FL
24. usa
25. winchester kentucky
26. Eastlake, Ohio
27. Evergreen, Colorado
28. NY
29. NW
30. Pacific Northwest USA
31. Southeast USA
32. Central Missouri
33. Michigan
34. ohio
35. Colorado
36. Texas
37. North East
38. north west Wa
39. Rome, Italy
40. AZ
41. Omaha, NE
42. Arizona
43. Germany/Afghanistan
44. MN
45. Mid- South
46. South
47. Ft. Rucker, AL
48. northeast
49. Denver
50. Iraq
51. Michigan
52. cleveland,oh
53. ATL
54. florida
55. NASA GRC, Cleveland, OH
56. Lakewood
57. Kansas
58. southeast
59. Howell, MI
60. Tennessee
61. Northern California
62. Connecticut, USA
63. texas
64. Seattle, WA

Total Respondents 66 (skipped this question, 52)

Again, thanks to all who responded!

Monday, December 18, 2006

This Survey question required a bit of thinking...

The following features may be added to Girls With Wings in the near future. Please rate the importance of the following features.

First number is a precentage of people in each category, second number in parenthesis is the actual number of people who chose this answer. I put in bold the winning category for each question. My comments follow in italics.

Coloring Pages
Very Important 24% (17) Important 28% (20) Somewhat Important 39% (28) Not Important 8% (6) Response Total 71
Coloring pages can be found here.

Ability to fill in and print a "Future Pilot" License.
Very Important 34% (24) Important 39% (28) Somewhat Important 18% (13) Not Important 8% (6) Response Total 71
I am working on having a Girls With Wings club that will incorporate this idea. It is a very large project that has to be contracted out to a studio (beyond my abilities). Please be patient while I raise funds!

Interactive Games
Very Important 41% (29) Important 36% (25) Somewhat Important 17% (12) Not Important 6% (4) Response Total 70
Please visit the fun page to see the game.

A BLOG (Web-based journal).
Very Important 24% (16) Important 32% (22) Somewhat Important 38% (26) Not Important 6% (4) Response Total 68
Well, you found it!

Downloadable Screensavers or Animations.
Very Important 24% (17) Important 31% (22) Somewhat Important 34% (24) Not Important 10% (7) Response Total 70
Please visit the fun page to see the screensavers.

Ability to coordinate for Pilot Speaker/Presentions at Educational Forums.
Very Important 46% (32) Important 40% (28) Somewhat Important 11% (8) Not Important 3% (2) Response Total 70
I've been attempting to get people to sign up on either the Girls With Wings forum or the Generate LIFT forum. You can also contact the women via the bios page, or contact me directly and I will search my contact list to help find a speaker.

Introductions to Pilot Mentors.
Very Important 69% (49) Important 17% (12) Somewhat Important 13% (9) Not Important 1% (1) Response Total 71
See above comments.

A Message Board.
Very Important 34% (24) Important 48% (34) Somewhat Important 17% (12) Not Important 1% (1) Response Total 71

Ability to purchase items over the phone or fax.
Very Important 21% (15) Important 32% (23) Somewhat Important 31% (22) Not Important 15% (11) Response Total 71
Feel free to use the phone numbers on the website to contact me if you are not comfortable with eBay and Paypal. 216.577.6131.

Information on other Aviation Careers.
Very Important 70% (49) Important 17% (12) Somewhat Important 11% (8) Not Important 1% (1) Response Total 70
The bios page is a huge success. I just need more bios!

Total Respondents 73 (skipped this question) 45

Friday, December 15, 2006

In response to yesterday's post, I received this email:

comments = Hi, I'm 7 and I think your site is already good, but to make it more interesting I think you should make more games.

I completely agree! We are working on it... Unfortunately, I can't make the games, and so I have to hire someone to do them for me. I am devoting everything right now to Penelope Pilot. I have seen a picture of the prototype doll, so just know she is on her way. I'm getting there!

Another survey question:
How do you rate the usability and appeal of the Girls With Wings website as a destination for the young girls you know? What changes do you feel are essential?

1. Excellent resource with young girls ability to connect via computer access. Keep updating...old dates and info turn off potential candidates since they want a reliable source of info on a regular basis.

My response: this is why I am hoping more people will post on the message board. I am a one woman show here and there are a lot of behind the scenes work to be done. I am always looking for volunteers, if you're interested!

2. I like it
4. good
5. i don't know
6. i think now a days we saw that a girl is facing very difficulties in armed forces specialy in us armed forces they raped by there officers and coligue in my opionen girls should not come in armed forces
7. First visit so it takes a while to load at 56k modem speed.
8. I think that this is a great website it attracts young girls WHO WANT TO BE PILOTS to come on too!
9. For my daugther, more interactive games.
10. Instilling in young girls that an aviation career is attainable, no matter what anyone may say
11. This is my first visit, but not my last. I will also visit your other web sites. I am very impressed and very interested in what you are doing for young girls. I have written a bio and will submit in a few minutes.
12. It is very cute and interactive I would give it a 10
13. I bought a toe ring from the Girls with Wings store at Airventure, it broke, I'm very disappointed about this.

My response: As I say on my eBay store listings, I take customer service very seriously. I need my customers to be repeat customers and to tell their friends to buy merchandise (or we won't get any more games...) Please contact me for a replacement.

14. geared to much toward very little kids not to the ones actually on their way to get their license.

My response: My focus with Girls With Wings is to appeal to those little girls that instinctively are interested in aviation (airplanes, helicopters, space, etc.) that can't find resources appropriate to their age range. My intent is to broaden the age range as I grow. The female aviation enthusiast bios, at least, can appeal to all ages, and the email links will help you get in touch with women interested in assisting others on the way to getting their license. Again, feel free to post questions or comments on the message board and we will be able to facilitate dialogue there. ALSO, I do try to direct women old enough to get their license to resources more appropriate, like Women in Aviation, International, and the Ninety Nines, etc. We are all working together to make the future of women in aviation brighter!

15. its ok
16. none
17. Good
18. dont know first time here.
19. very good
20. My 9yr old loves it! Possibly more interactive activites related to aviation?
21. It's great! I think the coloring section is fun (even though I know it took a lot of time/money).
22. I think its a very fun website but it doesnt necassarily inspire young girls to become pilots. maybe if you told them what flying was like.

My response: I'm working on this. Please! Ladies who are submitting bios, include this information. Or post on the message board. Also, if I weren't on standby at work so much, I'd be including more information about my flying activities! (But working less on Girls With Wings, so it's a balance ;o) )

23. First visit - so I will have to get back with you on that. :) So far it is great!
24. Navigates well. Graphics and colors work.
25. Very easy to use. I like it as it stands, but for a more sophisticated computer user, there might be other ideas. I am still learning to navigate websites from my daughters!
26. It's a good website. I tried to enlarge the Kids'Page and/or enlarge one of the images so that I could send them to a child for coloring. But I was unable to enlarge a single image. I wanted to print out all of them individually but was unable to do so. the website is colorful and fun!

My response: I believe I fixed this after I read this comment. If anyone is having problems, please email.

27. I think it would be neat if you could link future girls with wings to women who are already flying. I like all of your ideas listed in 4. also!
28. Young, fun and creative. The site will attract many young girls.
29. good unknown
30. good
31. Still can't open the website. Perhaps I should redo this questionaire a second time after I have a chance to "see" the website.
32. I think that my daughter (at 2 1/2) would love to get on your website to play games or to download coloring materials. It would be great to also use the website to discover how to pursue a career in aviation. I love the Bios. It would be nice to transfer the motivation into something that would change lives. I could see mentoring as a great way to spread the word and change lives.
33. I think it is a very appealing site for young girls. I would have to spend more time looking at all aspects of the site before I could recommend changes.
34. well i think its a great site but if had a little games of flying and stuff
35. Newsletter improving with each issue. Good mix of photos and interest stories. Should appeal to young girls - not too long to read through. Some of the features in #4 below may be worthwhile "if" newsletter is being marketed to young audience, i.e. girl scouts, schools, etc.?
36. A+. Just keep doing a great job!
37. content. content. content. A good goal for a website such is your Lynda, would be to put twice as much usable content (ie: research of famous female pilots, how to get into flying clubs, civil defense info, etc.) as you do fun stuff like the pics and store.

My response: This is a great idea. I think that since these are things being done on other websites, I would rather link to them and spend time on doing the innovative! There can be a lot more intellectual content in the future, but I want to get the basics down before I broaden my focus too much.

38. I don't really know any young girls (other than my 3 mos old daughter) well enough to say. Sorry!!
39. some of the pages are cluttered with several images; i can imagine that it might be overwhelming for some kids.
40. Don't know any young girls who visit it yet

Again, thanks for everyone's input. I take comfort in the fact that the majority of the comments were positive. Don't hesitate to share with me your comments via the forum (since the survey is closed).

Have a great day!

Thursday, December 14, 2006

The next question on the survey was the following:

How often do you visit the Girls With Wings and/or the Very Important Pilots Websites? Select one answer for each item.

Girls With Wings Website

This is my first visit. 68% (80)
At least once a week. 5% (6)
Once a month. 9% (10)
Bi-monthly, coincident with newsletter. 9% (11) (Note: the newsletter originally came out every other month.)
Less often (but more than once). 9% (10)
Response Total: 117

Very Important Pilots Website:
This is my first visit. 66% (57)
At least once a week. 2% (2)
Once a month. 7% (6)
Bi-monthly, coincident with newsletter. 10% (9)
Less often (but more than once). 15% (13)
Response Total 87

Any other Women in Aviation Related Websites
This is my first visit. 25% (23)
At least once a week. 20% (18)
Once a month. 19% (17)
Bi-monthly, coincident with newsletter. 7% (6)
Less often (but more than once). 30% (27)
Response Total 91

Total Respondents 118

I would like to add more games to the website to encourage more children to the website, since the new bios seem to be what brings the older visitors. Of course, this costs money, and I am still working on bringing it in!

Feel free to add your comments to these questions at any time. What would keep you coming back to the website?

Saturday, December 09, 2006

Hi all,

I'm going to start posting the results of 2005-6's survey about Girls With Wings. Hopefully I can answer to some issues that were brought up and all of you can help me redirect Girls With Wings to make it as successful as it can be! Below you will also find some links to websites that support GWW and that GWW supports.
Thanks for your interest.

First question, and easy one on Site Familiarity.

1. How did you FIRST hear about Girls With Wings?

Saw a Brochure in an FBO (General Aviation Facility). 0.9%
Received the Newsletter from a Friend. 12%
Search Engine. 6%
Referral/Link from another site. 16.2%
Visited the Exhibit at the Women in Aviation Conference. 7.7%
Elsewhere (broken out below). 57.3%

1. saw article on Lynda Meeks in AOPA Flight Training mag (found at
2. AOPA Flight Training Magazine
3. A friend of mine, Kandi Horton, thought I would be interested in checking out the website.
4. A friend told me about it and emailed me the link.
5. Ask Captain Lim's website (I'll have to take this person's word for it, I can't find a link to GWW)
6. September 2006 Flight Training Magazine
7. on google.
8. i saw advertisement in newspaper that pakistan airforce are recruting female GD pilot in pakistan airforce so i m very shocked to listen this news
9. AOPA Pilot magazine
10. AOPA Flight Training Magazine
11. read about it in Flight Training magazine
12. AOPA Flight Training Magazine
13. AOPA Flight Training article
14. 99 meeting
15. website was forwarded to my from my father
16. aopa "flight Training" magazine
17. Propwash internet mail (again, can't find the mention)
18. Why we Fly - Moment of truth. Lynda Meeks' story in Flight Training Magazine
19. AOPA Flight Training magazine
20. Oshkosh WI Airventure (We'll be here next year, too!)
21. the 2006 Airventure in Oshkosh, WI.
22. Flight Training Magazine Article
23. I met the President, Lynda Meeks, at an airport while walking to my aircraft on a cross-country stop-over.
24. from a magazine article
25. AOPA Flight Training
26. AOPA Magazine
27. Ebay Items (
28. AOPA flight training magazine
29. Aopa Flight Training Mag
30. my mom told me
31. AOPA Flight Training
32. AOPA article about Lynda Meeks
33. AOPA Flight Training magazine
34. Oshkosh booth
35. 99s e-mail network (An international organization of women pilots founded in 1929.)
36. oshkosh airshow
37. received a gift (girls with wings t shirt)
38. Visited the booth at EAA Air Venture 2006.
40. From my wonderful friend Lynda!
41. parent told me about it
42. link from a friend
43. ANN-aero news network (
44. aero news website
45. referred by one of your women pilots involved with GWW.
46. eBay
47. 99s listserv
48. eBay
49. Referral from brother
50. Pro 99s
51. dont really remember, mabe the Pro99s listserve?
52. my mom flies site (
53. Ebay-looking for "girls" flight clothing.
54. My LTC forwarded an email referring to this organization with previous senders to include Kathleen M. Meilahn American University, Washington, DC Master of International Service Candidate. I have just now tried to open the website to check it out but the page and the newsletter are not opening at present. Will continue to try.
55. Flight Instructor
56. My dear friend - Lynda Meeks
57. I was introduced to this site while writing a book about 9/11. (Lynn Spencer's Book, Clear the Skies, about the effect the events of 9/11 had on the aviation industry)
58. From Linda first email
59. through the 99's pro pilot listserv
60. I can't remember!
61. You :)
62. 99s Group
63. At the Lake Erie 99s meeting
64. Through the 99s blog.
65. I designed the first website!
66. Saw a reference to it on the Pro 99s email listserv.
67. Heard about it from UAL Capt. Meryl Getline (

Thursday, November 30, 2006

My friend Joann sent me this picture today. Amazing, isn't it? It reminded me of a friend of mine taking private pilot lessons that was told by her flight instructor that it was too early in her training to fly at night. I thought this was so tragic when I heard it--flying at night is so amazing! But it made me start thinking(since this phase of my training is WAY far behind me), about all the differences between flying at night and during the day.

First, from personal experience, I can tell you it's amazingly beautiful. I've tried to take pictures of the New York City skyline at night, and there is NO way to hold a camera still enough to get anything but streaks of light. A person does lose their depth perception in the dark, though, making landings a little difficult. Knowing this and compensating for it (by checking your altitude over the ground, using other visual cues) can overcome illusions such as:

A Black-Hole Approach Illusion.

A Black-Hole Approach Illusion can happen during a final approach at night (no stars or moonlight) over water or unlighted terrain to a lighted runway beyond which the horizon is not visible. When peripheral visual cues are not available to help you orient yourself relative to the earth, you may have the illusion of being upright and may perceive the runway to be tilted left and upsloping. However, with the horizon visible, you can easily orient yourself correctly using your central vision.

A particularly hazardous black-hole illusion involves approaching a runway under conditions with no lights before the runway and with city lights or rising terrain beyond the runway. These conditions may produce the visual illusion of a high altitude final approach. If you believe this illusion, you may respnd by lowering your approach slope.

There are a number of visual illusions for day or night that pilots study in their training. A good summary of all of them is in an FAA brochure that you can find here:

Thursday, November 23, 2006

Happy Thanksgiving!

It had to happen. I am sick. The good news is that work didn't need me today anyway. The bad news is that since I thought I would have to work, I made no plans for a turkey dinner. Boston Market to the rescue!

So, let's talk about pilots and sickness...

Pilots need to have a current medical to fly. Every so often, they get a full examination by an Aviation Medical Examiner, which is usually good for six months (as a Pilot in command, Captain) or sometimes a year (second in command, First Officer).

According to the FAA:
What class of medical certificate must I hold and how long is it valid?

A first-class airman medical certificate is required to exercise the privileges of an airline transport pilot certificate. A first-class airman medical certificate is valid for 6 months plus the remainder of the days in the month of examination.

A second-class airman medical certificate is required for commercial, non-airline duties (e.g., for crop dusters, corporate pilots) and is valid for 1 year plus the remainder of the days in the month of examination. Those exercising the privileges of a flight engineer certificate, a flight navigator certificate, or acting as air traffic control tower operator must hold a second-class airman medical certificate.

A third-class airman medical certificate is required to exercise the privileges of a private pilot certificate, recreational pilot certificate, a flight instructor certificate, or a student pilot certificate. A third-class airman medical certificate is valid for 3 years plus the remainder of the days in the month of examination for pilots under age 40 or for 2 years plus the remainder of the days in the month of examination for those pilots age 40 and over.

Additionally, pilots need to evaluate themselves on a daily basis to determine whether they are fit to fly. There is no question if the pilot is taking a medicine that makes them drowsy or has other side effects. If the pilot has a simple cold, they can take some over the counter medications to reduce the symptoms. HOWEVER, it is always up to the pilot to decide whether they can perform as needed. This is especially apparent if the pilot is just plain tired. It causes a decrease in decision making ability and reaction time--not good traits in a pilot...

Says the FAA:
Am I prohibited from exercising the privileges of my pilot certificate during medical deficiency?
Yes. You are prohibited from acting as pilot-in-command or as a required pilot flight crewmember during any medical deficiency that would be disqualifying or may interfere with the safe operation of an aircraft.

This is a really broad answer, huh? Therein lies the problem. Most pilots want to do their job and do it well, so they don't want to "wimp out" because of a runny nose. Pilots ask themselves, "Am I really tired or do I just need another cup of coffee?" The question pilots need to ask themselves is, "Am I capable of performing at my best today?" That's what our passengers expect and deserve. Of course, those we're working for might not appreciate our taking the time to recuperate because it can really mess up their schedules. Since bad things rarely happen, it's easy for all of us to forget how horrible things can get if something goes wrong. Pilots never want an accident to be caused by "pilot error."

For more information, see 14 CFR §61.53§ 61.53
Prohibition on operations during medical deficiency.
(a) Operations that require a medical certificate. Except as provided for in paragraph (b) of this section, a person who holds a current medical certificate issued under part 67 of this chapter shall not act as pilot in command, or in any other capacity as a required pilot flight crewmember, while that person:

(1) Knows or has reason to know of any medical condition that would make the person unable to meet the requirements for the medical certificate necessary for the pilot operation; or

(2) Is taking medication or receiving other treatment for a medical condition that results in the person being unable to meet the requirements for the medical certificate necessary for the pilot operation.

A simple problem such as a cold, a broken arm, or an abscessed tooth may require nothing more than the appropriate treatment and a little time before you can safely return to the skies. A more complicated problem or the development or change of a chronic illness may necessitate consultation with an AME or the FAA before resuming flying. New medical conditions do not need to be reported to the FAA until you wish to return to flying.

There are some conditions that mean a person is unable to get their medical:
What medical conditions does the FAA consider disqualifying?
The following conditions are listed in the regulations as disqualifying medical conditions; however, in many cases when the condition is adequately controlled, the FAA will issue medical certification contingent on periodic reports.

Angina pectoris
Bipolar disease
Cardiac valve replacement
Coronary heart disease that has been treated or, if untreated, that has been symptomatic or clinically significant
Diabetes mellitus requiring hypoglycemic medications
Disturbance of consciousness without satisfactory explanation of cause
Heart replacement
Myocardial infarction
Permanent cardiac pacemaker
Personality disorder that is severe enough to have repeatedly manifested itself by overt acts
Substance abuse
Substance dependence
Transient loss of control of nervous system function(s) without satisfactory explanation of cause.

Other conditions not specifically listed in the regulations are also disqualifying.

Have a great holiday weekend!

My niece, Delaney, *kind of* protesting her constant modeling of Girls With Wings apparel!

Wednesday, November 15, 2006

Hi all,

I've been sitting in front of my laptop ALL DAY getting the merchandise numbers updated for the Girls With Wings store since I have a couple of retailers placing orders this week for GWW items to put in their stores! My back is killing me... I'm not complaining TOO much, though. I appreciate everyone's support.

I also contacted Women in Aviation, International, about their conference in Orlando, FL, next February. This is a great organization of women aviation professionals and their website is In last year's booth, I took video clips of conference attendees telling the interviewer what they did and why they LOVED it (aviation enthusiasts usually love what they do) and posted them on the website. I have asked to do it again this year, and hopefully I can get a quieter corner (the video online has some background noise). Have a look though, and hope to see you (and interview you) at the conference.

Talk to you soon...

Monday, November 13, 2006

Someone sent me this amazing picture showing the vortices from a large aircraft:

Although amazing just to look at, there's an explanation behind it that pilots need to be aware of...

An aircraft, like a ship, will leave a wake behind it. The lift on the wing is because of the difference between the higher-pressure acting on the wing's bottom surface and the lower pressure on its top surface. This difference in pressure causes the airflow near the wing tips to curl around the tips and move from the higher-pressure area below the wing to the lower pressure above the wing. The aircraft's wake is in the form of these two counter-rotating swirling rolls of air—the wake vortices—that trail from the wings of the aircraft. The wake vortex pair may last for several minutes and stretch for many kilometers behind the aircraft. The strength of the vortices depends on the aircrafts' weight, the air density, the flying speed, and the wingspan.

Vortices last longer in calm air, and atmospheric turbulence hastens their decay. Decay is the dying out of eddies. All aircraft produce wake vortices—much like two small horizontal tornadoes trailing behind the wing tips. The larger and heavier the plane is, the stronger the wake. That means small aircraft that follow larger ones can encounter turbulence if they are not kept far enough apart. The turbulence can be severe enough to cause a plane to crash.

Wake vortices are normally invisible, and pilots have no warning that they are flying into them. For this reason, the International Civil Aviation Organization has strict rules about the permitted spacing between aircraft, based on their sizes. In instrument flying conditions, aircraft may follow no closer than 3 nautical miles (5.56 km), and a small aircraft must follow at least 6 nautical miles (11.12 km) behind a heavy jet. However, the Autonomous Flight Formation (AFF) that NASA is developing could allow commercial planes the ability to use the vortices of other planes to save fuel, and fly safely.

Does it seem less awesome, now that you know why?

Sunday, November 12, 2006

I had hoped to post a little more consistently, but I am dependent on how much time and energy I have after a long day of flying--and whether I have the internet access at the hotel where I'm staying. For example, the picture above is the Gulf Coast shoreline on the way into Pensacola, Florida, on the same day that I spent the night in Toronto, Canada (internet access at this hotel is $13!). At the FBO, though, it's free, so here I am.

So, what is an FBO? FBO stands for Fixed Based Operator and is basically the private terminal (as opposed to the standard commercial airport terminal you're probably used to). Privately owned airplanes use these as one-stop service centers from where pilots can get fuel, maintenance, cleaning of the aircraft (to include the toilet if applicable), overnight hangar parking/tiedown service, deicing in cold weather, etc., along with assistance with flight planning, hotel arrangements, etc. Plus, the passengers can get their catered food from here, rent a car or get a limo/taxi, use the lounge or meeting facilities (often), and more. Some FBOs also have flight training and aircraft rentals or charters.

The nicer ones really cater to the pilots, with crew lounges with big screen TVs and satellite systems, showers, snooze rooms, sometimes exercise equipment. This is because many pilots fly for one owner, and should that owner need to spend the day in one location, the pilots end up sitting for hours there. Usually these people in the FBO are especially friendly because there is a lot of competition between the different FBOs that might be on any given airport. Oh, and sometimes they can charge very high fees for their services, too...!

Wednesday, November 08, 2006


It's been a very long day... I was awakened at 0500L (That's 1000Z in aviation speak: we use "Z" time to represent GMT or Greenwich Mean Time or UTC, Universal Time *something or other*--Oh, you know what, let's let the folks at NASA define it.

The world is divided into basically 24 time zones. For easy reference in communications, a letter of the alphabet has been assigned to each time zone. The "clock" at Greenwich, England is used as the standard clock for international reference of time in communications, military, aviation, maritime and other activities that cross time zones. The letter designator for this clock is Z.

Times written in military time (24 hour format) are four digits, such as, 1830Z (6:30 pm) with the Zulu suffix. Note that the phonetic alphabet is used for the letter Z (Zulu). This time is usually referred to as Zulu Time because of the letter assigned to this time zone. Its official name is Coordinated Universal Time or UTC. This time zone had previously been called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) but was replaced with UTC in 1972 as the official world time standard changed. While GMT is based on Earth's rotation and celestial measurements, UTC is a based on cesium-beam atomic clocks. The two clocks are rarely more than a second apart as leap seconds are applied to UTC.

Sometimes it's better just to ask a rocket scientist.

Anyway, we departed my Cleveland, Ohio, home airport and went to Kentucky to take some folks to a resort town in the Florida Keys!

This was a very small airport--they don't even offer any fuel services. So you have to make sure you have enough fuel when you land to be able to get to another airport with either a fuel pump or fuel truck. We had to stop in Miami, Florida, for fuel so we could continue on to Jacksonville, also in Florida. We spend the night here and its another early wakeup to fly some more!

Monday, November 06, 2006

Hi All,

I skipped the weekend's posts so I could spend some time with family. This included taking a couple of pictures of my nieces in Girls With Wings wear...

To purchase visit these or other items visit:

Also, I would like to encourage everyone to visit
I do my best to post information about scholarships as I find out about them. I know money is an issue when researching pilot training, and there ARE resources out there!

Friday, November 03, 2006

Here's another "Did you know?"

Did you know that there are many smaller airports out there with "pilot controlled lighting?" This means that the lights are turned off when everyone goes home at night, but if someone decides they want to land at said airport, they can turn the runway and taxiway lights back on so they can operate safely. Sometimes this feature is helpful when trying to FIND the runway. It's an amazing thing on a dark night to watch an airport light up in the darkness.

The way the pilots do this is to tune up a designated frequency on their radio and then key the mike (break squelch, push the doohickey, etc.) for seven times rapidly. After the lights come on they can key the mike three or five times to decrease the brightness of the lights. After 15 minutes, the lights go back off--to save electricity! Most people recommend pilots rekey their mike when coming in on an approach, thereby reseting the timer--to avoid having the lights go off right as they're getting ready to land....

Wednesday, November 01, 2006

The only posting tonight will be to let you that the newsletter is up...

Unfortunately, the link to the slides from the NCASE Conference didn't work in the newsletter that was sent out. If you visit the link above, and open up the November newsletter, the link for the slides WILL work. Until my luck runs out again... ;o)

Tuesday, October 31, 2006

Picture taken while flying over Oregon. Anyone living at the base of those hills doesn't know it's bright and sunny above!

Did you know?

Last year, the United States instituted RVSM (Reduced Vertical Separation Minimun). RVSM reduces the vertical separation between flight level (FL) 290–410 from 2000 ft to 1000 ft and makes six additional FL’s available for operation. The additional FL’s enable more aircraft to fly more time/fuel efficient profiles and provides the potential for enhanced airspace capacity. RVSM aircraft operators must receive authorization from the appropriate civil aviation authority to operate in the inclusive altitudes. RVSM aircraft must meet required equipage and altitude-keeping performance standards. Operators must operate in accordance with RVSM policies/procedures applicable to the airspace where they are flying.

Domestic RVSM is projected to accrue the following benefits:


Fuel Savings Benefits 2005 – 2016: $5.3 billion
6/1 benefit/cost ratio
$393m. first year savings---with 2.0% annual increase
Greater availability of more fuel-efficient altitudes.
Greater availability of most fuel-efficient routes
Increased probability that an aircraft will be cleared onto the desired route or altitude

Air Traffic NAS Operations

ATC Flexibility (e.g., routing aircraft around storm systems)
Mitigates conflict points
Enhances volume of aircraft that can be accommodated in a given sector (sector throughput)
Enables crossing traffic flows to be accommodated
Reduces controller workload (eg., reduced vectoring and FL changes)
Provides for growth in NAS enroute airspace capacity

I have been trying to get a good picture of the underbelly of a big airplane flying directly overhead, but unfortunately by the time I know the aircraft is coming... it's gone!

Monday, October 30, 2006

Just a quick message, because the newsletter is coming out tomorrow... You can sign up to receive it on the "news" page of

I just wanted to talk about some of my favorite phrases to use on the radio while flying.

If ATC calls, "Aircraft 123, you have traffic 2 o'clock, 10 miles, 1000 feet above you, an Airbus traveling right to left."

A pilot can answer, "Negative contact, but we've got 'em on the fishfinder. Oh, wait, tally ho."

Negative Contact: We do not have that aircraft in sight.

Fishfinder: The TCAS (Traffic Collision Advisory System). This is an instrument in more complex aircraft that uses transponder readouts (usually with a specific four digit code that ATC also identifies you with on their radar) to feed altitude and vertical speed information to other aircraft in the area. If the instrument determines there is a possibility of collision, a warning is broadcast in most cockpits, "Traffic, Traffic!" Obviously this instrument is handy in the clouds or when in the vicinity of aircraft that aren't talking to the same controller (if anyone at all).

Tally Ho: A foxhunting term, and later a term used by fighter pilots, this expression means the pilot has the traffic in sight. It's usually a sign that the pilot using it either is or was military.

Sunday, October 29, 2006

Welcome to the new blog. I have changed to this service because I can actually send text messages via my cell phone to the blog. This will be very handy when I'm traveling on the road. *subject to change, of course!*

So I went for a bike ride today, despite 25mph winds. Why do they always seem to be a headwind...?

Wind is a pretty big deal these days in the northwest, but it's always a big deal to pilots. In a previous post I talked about a frontal passage. According to, a FRONTAL PASSAGE is the passage of a front over a specific point on the surface. It is reflected by the change in dew point and temperature, the shift in wind direction, and the change in atmospheric pressure. Accompanying a passage may be precipitation and clouds. May be referred to as "fropa."

This is what often causes TURBULENCE, the irregular and instantaneous motions of air which is made up of a number of small of eddies that travel in the general air current. Atmospheric turbulence is caused by random fluctuations in the wind flow. It can be caused by thermal or convective currents, differences in terrain and wind speed, along a frontal zone, or variation in temperature and pressure.

What is of a concern to pilots and their passengers is Clear-Air Turbulence (often abbreviated CAT and sometimes colloquially referred to as "air pockets"), the erratic movement of air masses in the absence of any visual cues (such as clouds). Clear-Air Turbulence is caused when bodies of air moving at widely different speeds meet; at high altitudes (7,000-12,000 metres/23,000-39,000 feet) this is frequently encountered around jet streams or sometimes near mountain ranges. Clear-Air Turbulence is impossible to detect either with the naked eye or with radar, meaning that it is difficult to avoid. However, it can be remotely detected with instruments that can measure turbulence with optical techniques, such as scintillometers.

This kind of turbulence creates a hazard for air navigation. The rapid changes in the speed and direction of the air mass cause the lift created by an aircraft's wings to vary quickly and unpredictably, making for a rough flight. From:

I get asked about turbulence quite a bit, and I try to reassure the jumpy by telling them they have probably not even come close to how bumpy the air could be to still have the turbulence considered "moderate." There is still severe and extreme to go...

As pilots, we are asked to give PIREPS (PIlot REPorts) to ATC (Air Traffic Control). According to the Airman's Information Manual:

PIREPs Relating to Turbulence
a. When encountering turbulence, pilots are urgently requested to report such conditions to ATC as soon as practicable. PIREPs relating to turbulence should state:
1. Aircraft location.
2. Time of occurrence in UTC.
3. Turbulence intensity.
4. Whether the turbulence occurred in or near clouds.
5. Aircraft altitude or flight level.
6. Type of aircraft.
7. Duration of turbulence.

EXAMPLE-1. Over Omaha, 1232Z, moderate turbulence in clouds at Flight Level three one zero, Boeing 707.2. From five zero miles south of Albuquerque to three zero miles north of Phoenix, 1250Z, occasional moderate chop at Flight Level three three zero, DC8.

b. Duration and classification of intensity should be made using TBL 7-1-9.

TBL 7-1-9
Turbulence Reporting Criteria Table
Intensity, Aircraft Reaction, Reaction Inside Aircraft, Reporting Term-Definition

Light: Turbulence that momentarily causes slight, erratic changes in altitude and/or attitude (pitch, roll, yaw). Report as Light Turbulence.
Turbulence that causes slight, rapid and somewhat rhythmic bumpiness without appreciable changes in altitude or attitude. Report as Light Chop.
Occupants may feel a slight strain against seat belts or shoulder straps. Unsecured objects may be displaced slightly. Food service may be conducted and little or no difficulty is encountered in walking.

Occasional-Less than 1/3 of the time.

Intermittent-1/3 to 2/3.

Continuous-More than 2/3.

Moderate: Turbulence that is similar to Light Turbulence but of greater intensity. Changes in altitude and/or attitude occur but the aircraft remains in positive control at all times. It usually causes variations in indicated airspeed. Report as Moderate Turbulence.
Turbulence that is similar to Light Chop but of greater intensity. It causes rapid bumps or jolts without appreciable changes in aircraft altitude or attitude. Report as Moderate Chop: Occupants feel definite strains against seat belts or shoulder straps. Unsecured objects are dislodged. Food service and walking are difficult.

1. Pilots should report location(s), time (UTC), intensity, whether in or near clouds, altitude, type of aircraft and, when applicable, duration of turbulence.

2. Duration may be based on time between two locations or over a single location. All locations should be readily identifiable.

Severe: Turbulence that causes large, abrupt changes in altitude and/or attitude. It usually causes large variations in indicated airspeed. Aircraft may be momentarily out of control. Report as Severe Turbulence. Occupants are forced violently against seat belts or shoulder straps. Unsecured objects are tossed about. Food Service and walking are impossible.

a. Over Omaha. 1232Z, Moderate Turbulence, in cloud, Flight Level 310, B707.

Extreme Turbulence in which the aircraft is violently tossed about and is practically impossible to control. It may cause structural damage. Report as Extreme Turbulence.

b. From 50 miles south of Albuquerque to 30 miles north of Phoenix, 1210Z to 1250Z, occasional Moderate Chop, Flight Level 330, DC8.

High level turbulence (normally above 15,000 feet ASL) not associated with cumuliform cloudiness, including thunderstorms, should be reported as CAT (clear air turbulence) preceded by the appropriate intensity, or light or moderate chop.

Sorry, this one got a little long. I learn when I do this, I hope you do, too!